Poor diet and cancer risk
Can unhealthy eating give you cancer?
What you eat can have a big impact on your risk of developing cancer.
One of the biggest risk factors for cancer is being overweight or obese. Eating food that is high in fat or sugar can make you gain weight, and there is strong evidence that being overweight or obese increases the risk of 11 cancers.
However, diets that are high in plant foods – such as fruit, vegetables, wholegrains and pulses – can help you stay a healthy weight, and may also protect against certain cancers.
Find out more about other aspects of diet including:
There's no strong evidence to link sugar to cancer risk directly. However, foods that are high in added sugar tend be high in calories without being nutritious or filling. Eating high-calorie foods or drinking sugary drinks too often or in large quantities can lead to weight gain, and there's strong evidence that being overweight or obese increases the risk of 11 cancers.
Do we eat too much fat and sugar?
This table shows the recommended proportion of food energy that should be made up of fat, saturated fat and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMESs), and the proportion of food energy that is made up of these nutrients in men and women in the UK, on average.
|% of food energy|
|Men, by age||Women, by age|
|Recommendation (% of food energy)||4–10||11–18||19–64||65+||4–10||11–18||19–64||65+|
Figures from 2012–14.
Fibre, fruit and vegetables
Diets rich in wholegrains and fibre have been shown to reduce the risk of bowel cancer. Research shows that vegetables and fruit probably reduce your risk of a number of different types of cancer, including mouth and throat, and lung. Eating lots of wholegrains, vegetables, fruit and pulses can help you stay a healthy weight, which is an important way to reduce your cancer risk.
Unfortunately, many people in the UK do not eat enough fruit or vegetables, or fibre. The recommended intake of fibre for adults in the UK is 30g a day. On average, adults in the UK eat about 18g of fibre a day.
How many portions of vegetables and fruit do we eat?
|Age group||Average fruit and vegetable portions consumed per day||% of people achieving 5 A DAY|
|65 and over||4.2||35|
Figures from 2012–14. One portion is equivalent to 80g.
Approximately how many cases of cancer could be prevented in the UK each year if everyone ate enough vegetables, fruit and fibre?
|Type of cancer||Amount of cases preventable through eating non-starchy vegetables|
|Mouth, pharynx and larynx||34||3,600|
|Type of cancer||Amount of cases preventable through eating fruit|
|Mouth, pharynx and larynx||17||1,800|
|Type of cancer||Amount of cases preventable through eating foods containing fibre|
Information on sugar comes from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Statistics on high-calorie foods and fruit & vegetables come from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey results from Years 5 and 6 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2012/2013 – 2013/2014). Information on food portion sizes comes from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food’s Food Portion Sizes, second edition. Find out more about preventability estimates or, for more detailed information, download appendix A of our policy report.
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